The purpose of the Journal is to publish the results of original experimental research that contribute significantly to knowledge in medical and biological sciences. Major criteria for acceptance are scientific quality, originality, and conciseness. Preference will be given to manuscripts that develop new concepts or experimental approaches and are not merely repositories of data. Papers that report negative results require special justification for publication. Methodological papers shall be considered for publication provided they describe new principles or a significant improvement of an existing method.

Submission of a manuscript to the Journal implies that the data have not been published previously and will not be submitted for publication elsewhere while the manuscript is under review. The following represent “prior publication”: any printed material in excess of 500 words describing results or methods of a submitted/in press manuscript; published tables or illustrations that duplicate the content of a manuscript; electronic manuscripts or posters available via the Internet.


Papers not be accepted for publication

  • Studies on people not approved by an accredited Ethics Committee or without written informed consent from the subject or legal guardian.
  • Studies on animals not approved by an accredited Ethics and Animal Care Committee.
  • Manuscripts that report preliminary results or only confirm previously reported results.
  • Manuscripts that describe the pharmacokinetics bioavailability and toxicity of drugs in people or animals.
  • Manuscripts that deal with transcultural adaptation and validation of instruments of measurements.
  • Manuscripts that translate a text published in another language and validate it on local patients.
  • Manuscripts that use questionnaires translated from the language of another country and their validation in local patients.
  • Manuscripts that present only in silico.
  • Manuscripts from the area of veterinary medicine.
  • Manuscripts that report toxicological studies.
  • Manuscripts containing purely descriptive observations will not be published.
  • Manuscripts reporting new techniques will be published only when adequately validated and judged by the Editors to represent a significant advance.


Manuscripts which report biological activity of natural products

The Journal will consider papers for publication which describe the activity of substances of biological origin only if they satisfy all of the following criteria:

  • Papers should describe the separation of the crude material into fractions (not necessarily into homogeneous materials) with the fractions containing biological activity identified clearly in the separation scheme. Phytochemical studies should be accompanied by biological tests. A survey of pharmacological activity of plant extracts or teas will not be considered for publication.
  • In addition to the demonstration of activity in one or more biological system, experiments must be performed attempting to provide information concerning the mechanism(s) of action of the substance(s) being tested.
  • Sufficient experimental information must be provided to permit repetition of the preparation of fractions and the bioassay used.
  • Sources should be identified completely, and, if plant material, a specimen should be classified by an expert and deposited in a local botanical garden, university or research institute. The name and institution of the person who classified the plant and the number of the voucher under which it was deposited should be provided in the Material and Methods section.

Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses

Guidance for reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Reports must conform to PRISMA 2009 guidelines (

Provide the study’s registration number (eg, with PROSPERO) (


Search strategy and selection criteria

  • Start with a study descriptor.
    Is this a systematic review only (ie, an assessment of heterogenous trials with no summary estimate) or does it also include a meta-analysis (with an overall summary estimate from available data)?
  • What were the criteria for study inclusion? List study dates, language requirements, populations assessed, and study design (eg, only randomized controlled trials or only observational studies).
  • State any study exclusion criteria and reasons.
  • Describe the data sources assessed. List databases searched and exact date cutoffs. Provide search terms used for at least one database such that the search could be repeated.
  • How thorough was the search (eg, study authors contacted, grey literature sources assessed, and articles translated)?
  • Did you search trial registries and seek data from any unpublished studies identified?
  • What level of data was sought (individual patient-level data vs summary estimates)?
  • Who did the searches and data extraction, and how were conflicts over inclusion resolved? Describe criteria for inclusion in the systematic review and also for inclusion in the meta-analysis (if different).
  • Provide a link to the study protocol if available online. State statistics package and version number used for analyses.
  • List study registration number and name of registry, if available.